Evaluation of Danida Multi-Bilateral Interventions
A Mokoro team led by Alta Fölscher conducted this evaluation of Danida’s (Danish International Development Agency) Multi-Bilateral Interventions, an assignment commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Denmark. For most of its development cooperation history, Denmark’s Official Development Assistance was provided either as core contributions to multilateral organisations, or as bilateral flows to partner countries for development and humanitarian interventions. Traditionally, bilateral flows were managed directly by Denmark as engagements with country governments (often implemented through third parties), non-governmental organisations, academic institutions, or private-sector-linked partners. Over the last decade, however, Denmark has channeled an increasing share of its bilateral commitments as earmarked contributions to multilaterals. This aid, known as multi-bilateral or multi-bi funding, increased from 14% of Danish ODA commitments in 2013, to reach 33% (USD 762 million) in 2019.
The Mokoro evaluation of this funding pattern was undertaken between October 2021 and August 2022, using mixed methods which included:
- Quantitative analysis of Denmark’s multi-bi and other flows from 2013 to 2019.
- Review of existing documentation.
- Interviews with Copenhagen staff, Danish multilateral representations, multilaterals and other donors.
- A survey of 98 Danida posted and national staff at embassies, from which 41 valid responses were received; the responses identified and assessed 100 multi-bi engagements.
- In-person country case studies in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia plus desk studies in Afghanistan, Mali, Niger, Palestine and Ukraine. The evaluation reviewed 24 multi-bi engagements from case study countries in depth.
The evaluation findings were validated through workshops with an Evaluation Reference Group, comprising Ministry of Foreign Affairs and external stakeholders, on emerging findings and the draft evaluation report. The final report also incorporates comments from Copenhagen staff, and in-depth case study country embassies.